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Stewart: Good evening, Im Stewart Brand from Long Now. All that growth and self-organized but Kevin calls have mine. Um, piece of advice in the ECI question cards, we discovered that theres clear patterns over the questions actually make it to the speakers through Kevin and then through me, its the one that are extremely legible and short. Um, theres a website now, you can go to and see wide images from the Space Science Satellite looking out and down mostly and you go to it and its on a black because its night or its gray because theyre changing cameras or its blue because its lying down at the ocean most of the time and you look theres something wrong here and then cloud goes by, its moving very quickly and they think, well thats really boring. Theres so much of it you realized actually from space thats what earth is, is not earth, its ocean and the surface of the ocean is incredibly turbulent and there danger drowning and theres things that might eat you and its all very fast moving. Um, but if you were in boat, you get this realization that comes after while, its all connected and you can go anywhere and the things that live in there can go anywhere and do. So to start on that journey heres Tierny Thys. (Audience clapping) Tierny:Thanks Stewart. Well, hi everybody. Im really happy to be here tonight. Um, the ocean is our new way, the single most complex largest feature on our planet. Its the one feature that sets us apart from any other planet in the known universe and well its often said that we lived in, on, in a small world, our ocean is immense like Stewart was saying and weve seen less than 5% of it with our own eyes. Biometrically 99% of earths habitable living space lies under sea which means that we land lovers lived on a mere 1% of the available living space on the planet. And despite the fact that were in a sequestered occupation, we are having a huge effect on the rest of the 99. So, what to do about at? Well, I figured the best thing is to dive in and get wet. So in the spirit of ng term thinking, I thought it would be fun for us to take a long ocean journey gether driven by the motion of the ocean itself and for this adventure we will riding the great ocean conveyor belt, a round trip will take us between a thousand to 1500 ars to complete, but well move along at the steady clip and well finish before dawn, tually in about 25 minutes. So, okay, so should we get started? Lets dive in, right. So lets dive into the Gulf Stream, this famous current was created when the thmus of Panama rose up some 4 and half million years ago to join North and South erica. Separating the Pacific in the Atlantic Ocean basins and that little act ange everything, it created the ocean circulation patterns we have today. As we ide north, we will be passing through an numerous amount of genetic microbial versity. Just last month, MIT Researchers found that the most abundant otosynthetic organism on the planet Prochlorococcus is cyanobacteria, best known for eating a lot of the oxygen that we breathe. This little um, cyanobacteria has this ttle vesicles on it and within those vesicles are lots of unique flexible sets of DNA ap a bits of unpoppable of rapid of um, rapidly evolving. So when you think of ochlorococcus which is a billion, billion, billion cells and you add this little sicles on each cell to it, the amount of genetic diversity within our ocean is enough st a one species, its almost inconceivable. So theres a lot of genetic power in the iling soup were swimming through. So speaking of swimming, why dont we take a little ep in the Sargasso sea, while were here, and this is a floating golden rain forest, me to mysterious eels and fish with fingers. This place is part of whats known is e high seas, ocean regions outside any countries economic jurisdiction, the no-mans nds protect by no one, yet they comprise about 58, only 60 percent of the ocean. The rgasso sea is special low because just in March, 5 countries got together, designed e Hamilton pact, pledging to protect the Sargasso sea so hopefully soon it will join small but promising handful of high seas protected areas and more over follow, high as are high priority right now in ocean conservation. The Sargasso was also one of lvias hope spots and these are places around the globe where we can still see the eans vibrant sea at work and youll be hearing more of those when Sylvia takes the age so stay tuned on the hope spots. Now speaking of hope spots in marine protected eas um, the Marine Protected Area Atlas, MPA Atlas since we have about 8,000 marine otected areas which is about still less than 3% of the worlds ocean protected. Now, s good news that we have um, so many, thats so many more than in the last 10 years d the rate of putting in marine protected areas has really increased but we still ve a long way to go before we have 20% of the ocean protected and the aim is to get at protected by 2020 so um, the padsicles set by many scientist so that we can otect enough ocean before causing more replicable damage. So continuing North, lets ntinue our journey and as we move North, well pass by Georges Bank off of um, Cape d, home to one of the most famous fisheries 500 year old fishery, the Atlantic Cod shery which crashed famously in the 90s do the over exploitation. But there is some od news here, today, many of the US fisheries are actually um, starting to rebound ke we have Alaskan Pollock, Mid-Atlantic Blue Fish, Havoc Black Sea Bass and most cently the Little Manhattan are getting protected as well the Forage Fish. So for US sheries were starting to recover, um, things and large part to the Magnuson Stevens t and strict regulations. But unfortunately this is not the case for the rest of the rld where globally, the global fisheries are two-thirds of them are still over ploited. The important thing to remember here is that we Americans import up to 90% our seafood, so, and thats the part of 10 billion dollar industry and about a third them are wild import um, are illegally caught. So it doesnt matter how you like ur seafood cooked by the it reach your plate, a third of its gonna already arrived ached, sorry, I just had put that in. So you know, our seafood consumption is second ly to China and so the choices we make at the market and at the restaurants, thats ving a huge impact on supporting or not supporting globally destructive fisheries. , the take home messages eat more vegetables just like your mom told you to um, and you do by or order fish, by fish that are um, low on the food the chain and that are ught by US well managed fisheries um, and also support policies that enforced ndatory seafood tracking. So while were up North here, lets continue our journey and ll pay a visit over to Scotland, a place sometimes for do as the Saudi Arabia of newable resources due to its wind and title currents. Here, in the Pentland Firth, ght there at the top of Scotland, we um, find some of the fastest moving title rrents in the world, about 30 kilometers an hour and its also the site of um, the oposed site of Europes largest title turban array which is predicted to extract about ,000 giga watt hours a year for Scotland. Now, as a point of reference Diablo Canyon st a bit South of here, Power Plant delivers about 18,000 giga watt hours of ectricity annually which is about 7% of Californias energy needs. So Scotlands title ergy extraction if it goes in and does what its predicted to do is looking pretty, etty respectable, globally ocean energy is still a bit player but um, you know fossil el economy but it can um, in some regions really make a significant impact like otland which is trying to decarbonizes its economy by 2030 and thats some pretty good ng term thinking um, Id say. So as weve traveled North to Scotland its gotten illier and a warm salty tropical waters have cooled and become more dense, the winds ve stolen the fresh water from them and they become even saltier and theyve started sink and this process is called deep water formation. It also happens down in tarctica and its the driving force of our global ocean conveyor belt also known as ermohaline circulation, thermo heat haline salt. So, thats our um, our mechanism and while were up here I figured we take a fun detour to see the largest, the tallest terfall in the world, the Denmarks Strait Cataract located between Iceland and eenland and that is not it. You cant see the worlds tallest waterfall because its der water, but if you could, it would be 3 times taller than Angel Falls which is at that is and in be 2,000 times Niagara at peak flow, so next time youre up there u could try to find that one, its kinda fun detour. Okay, so back on to our journey, right, so um, racing along, we will continue down staying deep and race along the gged edge of the worlds longest mountain range, 10,000 kilometers long, the d-Atlantic Ridge, this is where seafloor crustiest conjured from the bowels of the rth and its also where the theory of the continental drift was proven when the d-Atlantic Ridge was discovered, its also what broke up Pangaea some 200 million ars ago and you know, give us another 250 million years and we may have another super ntinent but for now if youve got old world, new world differences while you can just ame it on the Mid-Atlantic Ridge. So lets see, well just continue on and stayed ep, the currents get a little complicated here but well continue our journey, well ayed deep in this current and well follow our, follow it down, up under Africa, this ttle current is our return current that will take us home later on, but well take is and sidle up next to Madagascar you know, they just found a new continent under ter next to Madagascar called Mercia, later on that, Ill to you about that later and en well go pass Bangladesh where well have 18 million people displays in the next 40 ars to do rising sea levels and well stop right about here. Okay, the nice little rcle around the Indian Ocean and were gonna stop here at the search site of Air laysia Flight 370, a link the unrequited search which underscores just how much of e ocean still remains um, difficult to access and image even with such amazing chnologies, the synthetic apertures, sonar synthetic aperture radar. So um, this agedy of Air Malaysia also underscores the enormous amount of trash in our ocean that x up any search um, search and rescue operations. The Indian Ocean like every other ean basin has a circular jar that swirls around thousand, hundreds of tons of trash, man-made trash um, and recent tallies estimate about 5.25 trillion particles of astic weighing half a million tons are in ocean. So this plastic doesnt bio degrade d last for hundreds of years but its not just the plastic, the plastic actually ncentrates pollutants like DDTs and PCVs, is there actually like this little poison lls so um, thats sort of a rather unsavory long term legacy. The solution, reduce, use, redesign plastics and trash stream so we dont add more to the mix and its such eat news to hear that San Francisco is making steady headway on this banning plastic gs and single use water bubbles by October, go San Francisco, wohoo. (Audience apping) Tierny:Really setting a great example for the rest of the world to follow, finitely and you could check out the plastic pollution coalition for more solutions ere. Okay, so continuing our journey along, we will stay on our deep water current re and join the Arctic Circumpolar current, the mother of all currents here, the rgest one that circles all the way around here. This is the one allows for exchange tween the Indian, Atlantic and Pacific Ocean basins, its really the big current and s circular flow there you can see is um, what helps keep warm waters away from tarctica and keep that continent, the white continent, that task however is getting ite a bit tougher these days. 2 independent studies confirmed last week that the llapse of the West Antarctic Ice Sheet is well under way and has likely gone pass the int of no return and once this glacier right here, the flake glacier finishes melting pictured here, it will raised sea levels 2 feet in the next 200 years and its edicted to act as rather a lynched pin for the rest of this entire West Antarctic Ice eet and when that melts that will raise sea level another 10 to 13 sheet, um, 3 to 4 ters globally. So this is the big elephant in the room isnt it? Or perhaps elephant al has the case maybe um, sea level rise is inevitable in our future and places like nama, Miami, Boston, New York, Maldives, Cariboos, Bangladesh, all these places are nna be seeing large inevitable changes. That said its not all backed down here, down Antarctica, just a few weeks ago, the International Whaling Commission closed down pans scientific whaling which is great. So upwards of 400 minke whales will be ared, so thats great. Now how whales and marine life will fair down here in the face these large fresh water influxes and warming, well Adelie penguins are already ffering and its a big area, hot area of research. Okay, now recall the circumpolar rrent, it goes all the way around Antarctica, well these waters can stay deep or they n join surface waters and return to the gulf stream, so if we run the animation ckwards, we can pick up that return trip here, right here, this current here and so member were running the animation backwards so the current looks like its going wrong rection but its actually taking us this way and will pass Galapagos and across the cific and well head into a most beautiful part of the pacific, right here, the icenter of marine diversity, the Carl Triangle. Now this is an amazing, amazing ace, you find more than 500 species of coral, 3,000 species of fish, 6 of the world 7 rtle species, um, 2 going satiations the works, um, and its a global priority for ean conservation, just North of the triangle we find Micronesia and Palau whos spiring president Tommy Remengesau is banning all commercial fishing in his waters, area roughly the size of France. For him eco-tourism which brings in about 85 llion dollars a year compared to fisheries, mostly from Japan and Taiwan which brings about 5 million dollars a year, its kind of a no brainier, eco-tourism wins out in is case, a live shark and tuna is worth thousands more than a dead one. So further, low this, another Hope story, weve got New Caledonia which just in state of the tural park of the coral sea, 1.3 million square kilometers, 500 thousand square les, an area about the size of Alaska and according to conservation international, e largest protected area on land or sea, so thats big, that just happened, big news. the question now becomes, how do you enforce these vast areas to make them um, stead of just being paper parks, honest to goodness real protected areas and there me really promising tech solutions in that realm. First weve got some um, low cost anetary satellite observing systems like Planet Labs Dove Systems, these are, these ttle guys can survey the entire planet everyday and make those data available to the rld for free, kind of love that and the Skybox is another company imaging the planet gularly. Both companies are California-based, got some great innovation here, this nd of technology can keep in a real time eye on coastal changes and um, potential legal fishing operations, secondly there are low cost surface surveillance vehicles ke Liquid Robotics Wave Gliders, powered by the motion of the ocean and um, the ildrone, powered by the wind, both of these made here in the Bay Area again, Im eing a trend here, how you gonna do with Bay Area. Um, so um, these vehicles can sten and scan for illegal fishing boat in operation seeking, carry lots of sensors, , as can aerial drones. So recently in Australian company, Aerosondae tested their rial drones in Palau and are making steady head way to help out MPA enforcement over ere. And here in the Bay Area, Shah Selbe, a National Geographic emerging explorer making ocean drones for, conservation as well and his project called Soar Ocean. So ese I find a great reasons for hope, promising automated solutions that could be ply across the world to empower local groups for um, to protect their own MPA. So w, if we follow the current, if we follow our current back on our journey, we could ke this, this current and write that all the way back to the Gulf Stream. But I ink and end up where we started, but instead I think theres one section of the belt ve yet to explore, actually there are a lot but um, we can only do so much and night Id like to end by exploring our own waters off of California, here. And well t there by going back to this little spot here and right here taking this deep, deep ter current, right there you can see faintly and then well, well take that up into e Pacific, here and explore there. Now this deep water current holds the oldest ean water, the water thats been far from the, far um, from the surface the longest, s also some of the most acidic water. And when this old cold acidic waters up well xt to our shores, they can have a corrosive impact on a lot of the creatures here, ke for instance these little snails called terrapads or sea butterflies that can mprise a large part of the dive pink salmon, Walleye Pollock and tuna. Recently, gan state researchers did surveys and they found that 53% of the little terrapads ey sampled, they supposed to have these clear shells, their shells were all pitted d pack mark and starting to dissolve, 53% of them and thats expected to go up rapidly the coming years. Oysters are being affected as well, taylor shellfish farm in eldon Washington, the nations largest supplier of shell fish has said to move its um, ster larvae to Hawaii to less acidic waters so that their larvae have a better chance survival. And this just isnt happening in the Pacific, this is globally, we have anged the chemistry of the ocean, lowering the PH from 8.25 to 8.14 in less than, in out 250 years, thats a 30% change and its, this is the key, its a hundred times ster, than any PH changes that have happened in the ocean in the 20 million years. at is a rate thats very difficult for the animal world and the life to keep pace th. So for those unfamiliar with the mechanism, the ocean absorbs about a third of r carbon emissions and when carbon dioxide meet seawater, one of products it makes is rbonic acid which lowers ocean PH, they lower the PH the more acidic. Um, with vere consequences for animals relying on calicium carbonate, like oysters, terrapads, rals, coral reefs, deeper colder waters can hold more gas and more CO2 respiratory ste from ocean life as well. So dealing and adapting to ocean acidification, its nna be one of our biggest long term challenges because those deep waters rise as we n see in this conveyor belt and we just dont know how these rapid changes are gonna ay out on the Megafauna of the world ocean. Many of whom lived here of California in area thats been called the Blue Serengeti, these are the tracks of dozens of species om blue whales to white sharks to ocean sun fish, my particular favorite and I love is image because it represents just a hundreds of scientist and thousands of tellite tags that we now have been able to reveal that the movements of these animals ke never before and you know, I just confirmed what we already knew that the left ast is the hottest, hippest place to hang out in a world ocean, we knew that, didnt ? Yeah, well, any know satellite tag does that but um, so researchers are working on ring the ocean even further with mobile listening stations, able to record real time ta and relay it to our smartphones so that we can know the whereabouts of whales and ite sharks, we can avoid ship strikes and other unwanted encounters that way and so r traditional, whats been viewed as paparazzi oceanography where we, we cover a wow ent here and a wow event there, that slowly starting to change, well actually more d more rapidly with ocean animals as our research assistants and the creation of ings like cable observatories like this one, down in Monterey Bay, run by the nterey Bay Aquarium Research Institute, we can have 24/7 presence in the ocean. And ats really the key to understanding it, having coordinated, consistent coverage, it kes time, infrastructure, money, a lot of funding, um, doesnt like to do this long rm projects, lot of funding mechanisms but its really, its really the key to figuring t our long term future in the ocean. And theres something else that really gives me great shot of adrenalin, when I think about our deep future in the ocean, its about ur ways, every person on this planet can explore the ocean, study the ocean and nserve its resources. Projects like Seahack, you guys know about Seahack? It is a rtal of citizens science projects that everyone can play a part from identifying ankton to deciphering whale songs, to checking on the health of coral reefs, it so ny great meaningful whales to do science. The Maker Movement thats rocket launching r ocean curiosity, take for example David Langs great ocean ROV project, open ROV oject, David is in the audience so you must find him and his team, he is here today, , another great project from the Bay Area I might add, um, providing kits for kids d adults to build their own underwater vehicles, now in 50 countries, so that is just great project there. And there are online courses like from Coursera and future arn that are granting us free access to some of the great ocean professors out there, , news aggregating groups like Upwells Tide Report that make it easy to keep your nger on the pulse of whats happening in the ocean so you can stay up to date. We ve all these pieces of the puzzle, we just need to start feeding them together. So l leave you with these final thoughts. Earth alone holds the only known accessible quid ocean in the universe, oh I forgot the, one last thing. Google ocean which help u um, Sylvia helps start Google ocean and the Caitlin Seaview has um, are taking um, sentially making underwater street view, so you can put the ocean onto your desktop d explore it in panoramic detail and they were adjust it in Raja Ampat last month, in rch, so there another one to watch for, being able to explore the ocean from your sktop is fabulous. So um, so getting back, you know, earth alone holds the only own accessible liquid ocean in the universe. Mars appears to have an ocean but lost , presumably due to solar winds, other forces. Jupiters Europa, Saturns Enceladus, ey may have liquid oceans but they buried miles under a thick icy shell. It appears rth alone has retained its watery blue ocean in the face of solar winds and creasing solar luminosity, why? In large part, thanks to the relentless respiratory ocesses of earths bountiful life, the life that emerged, evolved and diversified in r ocean and then crawled out on the land. Earths life has helped to retain our quid ocean which in turn has allowed life on earth to flourish. As a member of this and scheme on what side of human history do we wanna place our smart selves when life omotes life, wondrous things emerge like psychedelic cuttlefish, amazing manta rays at seemed to summersault with joy as they swim, filtering the water and searching for od and intelligent entities emerge like graceful satiations and conscious humans. ndrous things I think are still to come on this watery planet and I dearly, dearly nt our species to bare witness to a bountiful future, not just for the next hundred ars but at least for the next 10,000. Weve got all the tools as never before, to rness our problem solving 7 billion brains. Now its just time to get to work. udience clapping) lvia:Well, Tierny thank you. You have set the stage. Taken all my best lines aughs) but really, were talking about the ocean here, its just as you point out, its st of the living world both in terms of abundance and in terms of diversity. Were cusing here on a long, now, think about how long is taken to get to where we are now. t least we have some ideas that earth is 4 and a half billion years in the making and s only very recently in that long stretch of time, that earth has been hospitable for e likes of us even half a billion years ago, wouldve been an unfriendly place for big mmals, big oxygen hungry creatures such as we, theres a plenty of life on earth, half billion years ago. When I dive into the ocean as Tierny has just taken all of us ving into the ocean, many other creatures that we encounter along the way, we make en be pretty much the way they were then, a lot of new things arrived like fish and rds, trees, many of things that are here now that have taken long time for earth to quire. But heres the shocking thing, its taking a very short period of time for mankind to alter the nature, of nature. To change the basics of what brought us here the first place and Tierny mentioned changing the chemistry of the ocean. Well, if were some alien out there, charge was trying to undo the 4 and half billion years of atever hes taken to get us to this amazing place that we, we think of these ours, ink of the way humans think of themselves. Must not long ago the Galileo was, whos ven a really hard time because he challenged the idea the earth was not the center of e universe but we still kind of think of ourselves, humans as being the center of the iverse, its just a fact, we think were the big boss, the world maybe at the universe. t least thats the way it appears when you consider the way we behave, burning through e essence that have taken all preceding time. Garden of Eden, if you will but its ally a blue ocean that drives the way the world functions, delivers most of the ygen in the atmosphere through biological processes. But even that process, photo nthesis wasnt here when first life appeared has taken a long time to get to the now, at we share. Its only taken a few hundred years, mainly the last 200 but at the celerating piece so I think its safe to say that in the last half century, at the me time that weve had this explosion of new knowledge, new information, learning more rhaps in doing all preceding history about big questions, who are we? Where do we me from? And maybe most importantly, where we going? We have the capacity now to only k those questions I supposed humans and maybe even elephants and whales and dolphins d some pretty smart fish that I know. Maybe the want to know as a child, my doubt, ere did I come from, you keep asking that question, I do all my life. Where we have me from? Maybe the most important question is not where we going but how are we going get to wherever that is, well it starts with knowing and maybe were the only eatures on earth with the capacity not only to understand what we understand but then act in a way they can protect the systems, the basic functions of the planet that ve, have taken so long to put into place and are becoming unraveled so quickly and at the same house sanctuary what we have learned more, it seems that maybe we have st war, at least when you think about the numbers. Half the coral reefs since I was child. What is that a long ago, geologically sleeping. But there gone order in a ate of serious decline, in the Caribbean 80% of the risk that where there in the 50s are simply gone. Thats scary stuff when you really think about how long it took get them to where they were and how rapidly theyre coming apart. About 90% of many the big fish and a lot of the little ones too have been extracted from the ocean by . We are new predators on these ancient systems that have nothing in their life story that is counted for the steady relentless probation that we impose across the ard. Big ones, medium size ones, the little ones whether they taste good or taste rrible that can be use for something like oil that we squeezed out of them or grind em up for defeat to cattle and pigs and chickens dont ask questions too much about ere their food came from, part of the ocean, they dont know. Ed Wilson, one of my vorite humans, the ant man from Harvard but a lot more or serve a poet scientist. He knowledges that over 10,000 years from the beginnings of series, human civilization ming together. In North America, the pattern is clear, we consumed the large, the ow and the tasty creatures exterminating a number of those that now exist only these ssils. Some ancient memory, perhaps we have deep inside of us. Were doing it much re quickly in the ocean, the large, think whales, think tunas, think that wonderful eature eliminated within just couple of decades of its discovery, the kind of manatee at lives in, lived now only in memory, in the arctic, stellers sea cow gone, the eat oak gone, in the Gulf of Mexico the Caribbean Sea, one said monk seals lounging the Miami beach, coming as far north as Galvas in Texas as recently as 1952, well, I s a child but I didnt even know their existence and now theyre gone, so were still sing some of the large. In the slow, theyre the first to go but we even take the st like the Tuna and other creatures, some of the fastest in the sea. And even the ste isnt an option necessary to qualify for heavy levels of extraction, think real in tarctica where many were taken thousands of tons, yanking the corner stone out of at tightly round system and what do we do? We squeeze the oil out of the creel or we ind them up is pet food or animal food that animals that we in turn eat or menhaden ttle oily fish, dont taste very good to us but boy they ever consumed by a lot of her creatures in the sea. So here we are, I think that journey, that journey took us d gave us, certainly gave for me a reminder of the whole, the planet, it gives us fe, most of it blue, water is the key. No blue, no water, no life, no green, no ue, no green, no water, no life. Its only about now that were able to see ourselves th that amazing image from space, the kids now grow up with but Stewart Brand thank u for rocking the boat and making sure that image was made public. So that every ttle school kid does grow up with it now and assumes what I didnt know as a child cause that image didnt exist that time, that when you turn the world around that is a g blue face, the Pacific Ocean, I could do it on a globe, I certainly had a classroom obe to enjoy as a kid but it isnt the same, not the same as having human eyes up ere looking back and holding that little jewel, that little spec, the list of lot of ry unfriendly options out there, just try it, setting a past keeping on Mars, I think will, I think its cool, I think we should, Id like to go but Id also like to come ck. (Audience laughs) Sylvia:And heres the thing, with all that attentions lets go t a past keeping on the moon, Mars, universe beyond. Some would like to terraform rs, its a great idea I think. But we dont have 4 and half billion years to make Mars rthlike, just think about what were doing to earth, making it more Mars-like, Mars e forming earth, more CO2 in atmosphere, the atmosphere of Mars is mostly CO2, who re heading in that direction? Not nearly the amount of CO2 in the atmosphere here at Mars has in fact the amount of CO2 in the atmosphere is tiny but its just right, st enough to power photosynthesis to generate oxygen, fix food and makes the planet nction but too much CO2 is, does not favor us, another maybe other organisms that ll say, woohoo, lets go, lets get rid of all these other pesky creatures because with re CO2 perhaps our time has come. Weve been looking in the sidelines for a billion ars and now we can prosper again or deep descendants may prosper again. Earth will e way or the other gone, what now after a long time, we are looking at is a future. e next 10 years are likely to be the most important in the next 10,000 years, away to at we do or dont do and Tierny gave us a pretty good view of why that so, whats ppening, what were doing to alter the nature, of nature and what the consequences are d even, what can we do about it? Well, one of the things I wanna do about it is take u on a dive to a couple of places in the ocean that may underscore what weve just en hearing and that is where Tierny took us the Gulf Stream to the Sargasso sea or r Bermuda. As a kid, I read books by way in BB and I wanted to do what that explore d before I was born with the fellow ocean lover and engineer go to Spartan. They oked up an idea that became a reality a Bathysphere, a submarine that these 2 guys uirm their way into and got lowered like a fish on the line over the side, half a le beneath the surface of the ocean, amazing. They were the first humans to make a und trip half a mile beneath the ocean and what did they see? Its like when King Tuts mb was open, what did you see? Wonderful things, thats what they saw, wonderful ings, they were diving under the history of life on earth, seeing what we now cognized as possibly the most common form of communication on earth, not the ternet, bio luminescence. And the order of 90% of the creatures in the deep sea have me form of bio luminescence and they speak with it, they flash, the sparkle, they ow, they glory in food , they signal to one another. Think of this, average depth of e ocean is 2 and a half miles, 4,000 meters plus or minus a bit. Maximum depth 7 les, 11,000 meters, go down a thousand feet like is mostly gone. A little bit is ere but not much even in the clearest water of Bermuda in the Sargasso sea where ese images were taken. Most of life on earth lives in the dark, not just Sacramento Washington, London or whatever. It start all of the time, it start all of the time most of the ocean and life is figured out the ways and means of communicating of tting by using bio luminescence or ignoring light altogether but light in the rgasso sea is throughout the illuminated part of the ocean where photosynthesis curs to all us a thousand feet down, thats powers photosynthesis drives the great ean food webs, generates most of the oxygen in the atmosphere and lot of it not by e golden rainforest, the big creatures of the Gulf forest is the little guys that do e heavy lifting, prochlorococcus, you may not of heard that before, turn it utter of e word, prochlorococcus, but get with it, you know about petunias and poinsettias and u know about all the other kinds of plants we eat but prochlorococcus enables you to eathe. With about 20% of the oxygen in the atmosphere is generated by that one kind blue green bacterium alone. Imagine, we didnt even know it existed until 1985, so ch more to be learn with only 5% of the ocean seen let alone really explored and Im glad that Tierny included this sweep of technology that it has enabled us in very cent times, mostly for the last 25 years gaining access to the ocean has never fore. But the first beginnings of it really began back there, well I guess the very rst beginnings when people began thinking about access to the sea with boats on the rface. Alexander the Great has said to developed the kind of built enabled, whether actually tried it out or he had one of his expendables tryout but to actually in a ass bell over the persons head to walk around and see whats under the surface, that s in 4 B.C. Im told, but whatever the evolution of what we known joyous had a long ginning to reach where we are now and were just beginning to seriously access the ean. Most of it, think of it, deep sea would sparkle all the time, where Carls ist, the oldest known living animal that we know so far is a Carl in the deep sea own as Gold Carl, 7,000 years in the making, something perhaps as much as 9,000 ars. What was the world like by those years ago? Where were human beings when some of ese deep Carls first began to grow? So here we are with the capacity to destroy them to continue together. One of the places that are technologies have taken us where mans have not been able to go before until 2007 was the real North Pole, not where erald Perry with at the top of the ocean in 1909 but the bottom, several miles neath the ice. So I wanna take you there, actually I wish I could take you there. I sh I could take myself there but in fact the Russians did it with their 2 submarines, re 1 and Mere 2. Mere means peace, I hope they practice peace in the ocean pecially in the Arctic because Russians really have more control, more say than any her nation and theyre being pretty pushy about exerting their influence and in fact ring a dive, historic dive in 2007 youll see a glimpse of it where the Mere subs made at great the sent and return. They planted a titanium flag in the heart of the ctic at the North Pole where a lot of are fellow mammals have made the Arctic their me, their future is very much at risk because of the changes that are now taking ace. It isnt just because of the climate change, not just because ocean idification that threatens the great ocean food webs. Its also you know, humans ntinue with the fine art of predation just like our ancestors years ago as hunter thers with pretty much narrow that down to a sport on the land and there are few aces where people relied largely on bush meat for their sustenance, but in the ocean, e ocean, were consuming bush meat, its all wild life, we dont think about that way, re hunter gathers at green glow that you saw on the under side of the ice, rich rest that are really tiny as individuals but those lush forest power the energy cles food for the little fish, that the birds, the birds dive, I wish I could dive as ep as some of these birds do holding my breath. Humans have the capacity to perhaps me humans gone more than a hundred meters, more than you know, somewhere hoping to t down to 500 feet on a single breath of air, power assisted with weights and you ow, getting some assistance coming back to the surface but nonetheless surviving with ng breath hole dives while were here you dont have to hold your breath if youre in a bmarine, its when atmosphere you can go as deep as the Mere subs, they go to 6,000 ters, well, the top of the world the maximum depth is about 5,000 meters plus a bit. clear submarine, sub power their way under the arctic ice measuring the thickness of e nice which they now have perceives since the 1950s is noticeably fining from neath. So top of the world, plant the flag, there they are, a century ago and here, ssia is planting the flag very recently, 2007. And now, although the top of the rld is another global communist even beyond the extent that Russia is trying to aim, there is a place at the top of the world that is high seas and whether youre lking about the 5 nations that border the Arctic or the 8 nations that are involved th an Arctic council. The fact that the matter is that every person whatever their tionality, wherever theyve come from have a vested interest in what happens to the ctic. Our voices have special resonance in the high seas part of the Arctic but we l should be weighing in with concern about whats happening to, what amounts to the anets air conditioning system, the Arctic and of course Antarctica as well. Big anges, more changes that we are witnessing than any other have been witnessed in the story of humankind. You know, some of this is obviously natural, I mean their cycles at come and go through time but we have pushed the fast forward button, changing the y the world works without knowing what the outcome is. So lets go to another place. ts go to a place that you will perhaps recognize because its right here, through ckyards. This part and if you can see just walk down the Monterey, drive down nterey, walk if you like. (Audience laughs) Sylvia:Theres the Pacific Ocean as seen om the land and there a part of the Pacific Ocean that until recent times humans were mply unaware of its existence, all the creatures who live there knew all about the nterey Canyon. And when I was the chief scientist of Noah, the head of NOAA, John nnels had a great image on his wall that was published in 1857 and it was of the nterey Bay and it showed soundings going out into the bay and then they you know, unding, sounding, sounding along the shore and then it just sort to stop, they didnt ow, they didnt have lines deep enough to know what was out there and then you have xt to it, one of the modern, tada, NOAAs charts that showed in immense detail, the nfiguration of that Grand Canyon of the sea. Curiously though, now its one of the st in that parts of the planet but only about 5% of the ocean has been map with the me kind of detail that we have from Monterey Bay. For the moon, for Mars, for piter, now I worked on Atlas of the ocean, oh this is for you Tierny, this is Tiernys t to be your favorite fish, I dont mean to eat, maybe that too but I dont think so. s Big Bony Fish, Ocean Sunfish with wonderful eye, you know when you look into that es, somebodys home and everyone is different from every other one, I didnt really preciate that until I spent lots of time underwater looking at the fish, looking at abs, looking shrimp, looking at life in the sea up close and personal. We know every her is unique like every dog, every cat, those that are brought back to health after eyve been abandoned or at damaged at the Monterey Bay Aquarium like they nurse them ck to health, restore them to everyone has its own personality, they all look fferent. I feel just one of those things that shockingly came into focus for me that l creatures, maybe every single prochlorococcus cell is unique with its own little ny DNA fingerprint. Its a miracle that great capacity for diversity, the other racle is how connected we all are that our DNA and procholorococcus and ocean sun sh and giant kelps and whatever it is, theres a lot we have in common with all other ving things. I think its, its a miracle of life and knowing it is maybe another racle. What is it about us? It gives us the power of asking for questions and then nding answers and then as never before with those 7 billion mines that turn entually, capacity maybe to figure it out maybe just in time before we go to far in dering the nature of nature, of doing what it takes to hold the planet steady, thats use for hope. National parks, we dreamed up that idea in this country, some say the st idea America ever had early in the 20th Century now were edging into the 21st with other good idea of brewing and that is to have protected areas in the sea. On a nd, it wasnt really aim at protecting the planet so that we could have a prosperous ture, it was more because places were beautiful and they were being wrecked, Teddy osevelt was cross and the use of power of the presidency to sign into the law using e antiquities act monuments. You think the monument is a piece of granite or mething, well he saw monuments in a different way, the living monuments and national rks, many of them started out as monuments and morph into this network of protected eas on the land and around the world about 14 creeping up to 15% of the land has some rm of protection as park or reserve, whatever, in countries around the world, all of at in little more than a century. Yellowstone was established in 1872, wasnt a tional park system, it was a national park, that was a year that the first eanographic expedition launch from the shores of England to explore the ocean of the rld much as youve explored it, thanks to Tiernys great expedition around the world. t they were at the surface, they do not have even mask and fins, they lowered devices ke the fisherman they were scientific fisherman, dragging the ocean floor, bringing ings up, dumping on the deck, trying to figure out what was there. If you could ing to this stage somebody from the challenger expedition and ask them just sit in e audience and watch what who youve just seen, what is supposed would surprise them e most? Been to the moon, you have images of Mars up in space and of course they be zzled by that. If anybody has a cellphone go of why they probably wonder, whats at? Yeah, I do that you could talk with this little device with people all over the rld and hit a few buttons you can download the Library of Congress, any element of it at you wish I mean the technologies would surely blow them away. I think they might as amazed by what we have not done knowing what we know and seeing how marvelous are technologies are where theyve enabled us to be. What do you mean? They might say, only people had been into the deepest part of the ocean is only 7 miles, 7 miles is thing and it you till 1960 to get there at the first time and then 2012, James meron, a film maker, an engineer, a genius. But all things considered what might rprise them the most is that we havent done more to safeguard our future. Im rprised knowing what I know but its so hard to get people to understand the value of at nature delivers to us free like breath, like water, like life and I loved Tommy mengesau, the President of Palau who has finally taken action because he gets it rtly economically, 85 million for tourism, 5 million to extract the wild life from e sea fishing, I wonder what I should do, I think I should protect the 85 million but s also protecting his reefs, hes protecting his life, its not just about money. One ing that money cannot buy is planet that works in our finger, we all have to get hind the concept of protecting nature, land, air, the fabric of life is certainly, e ocean, hope spots represent the beginning, theyre like national parks if you will t for other reasons the under score, the under pin, the planet be works in our favor. ime for us to return the favor, thank you. (Audience clapping) Stewart:Have a seat. lvia:Thank you. Stewart:Tom, okay, Im ready to do some questions from the audience d you guys may have some questions to each other based on, you know, how recently you ys talk to each other? Tierny:It just, actually you know, last month, to month, last nth probably or Stewart:Okay. Tierny:Yeah. Stewart:But you know each other, how far lvia:Oh, way back Tierny:Way back. Sylvia:Yeah, before she got her Ph.D. at Duke iversity. Tierny:Sylvias Alma Matter. And well my recommendation for graduate hool. [Laughs] Tierny:Weve bonded with epoxy over the deep flight, making the deep ight submersible many years ago with all sorts of epoxy. [Laughs] Sylvia:Were glued gether. Tierny:Glued together. Stewart:Question comes up, you talked a lot of Sylvia out the, that were, and we stopped living on wild life from the land that were still ving on wild life in the sea so tunnel kinda Sylvia:Heavily subsidized. Stewart:So, rm phases coming on fast as something like a third or half of the fish that deeply w, especially in Asias farm. And so this question is good news, bad news or mixed or at? Sylvia:Its maybe. Stewart:Say again. Sylvia:I think theres cause for hope if imal protein is a desirable goal and for many thats what Stewart:Omega 3, fatty acids lvia:Yeah. Stewart:you like those. Tierny:Although Omega 3, fatty acids are not made the fish, theyre actually from the algae that the fish consumed. So its not, you nt need to eat the fish to get those Omega 3, fatty acids. Stewart:We can eat the gae? Sylvia:Of course and there are several companies that are actually growing the gae smart companies. Tierny:Martech. Sylvia:And instead of squeezing a little nhaten and getting the oil out of them or squeezing the krill to get the oil out of em or, I dont know, its just marketing, its just marketing. Stewart:Thing is squeeze e algae. Tierny:Squeeze the algae. They dont squawk as much. Sylvia:What say? erny:The algae dont squawk as much [Laughs] Stewart:The algae rights, I can see lvia:And they could go grow fast too and it takes a long time this krill can be 10 or years old, it takes 3 years at least for them to mature and make hands grow fast as net. Stewart:Little krill take Sylvia:Absolutely, yeah. And I mean, think about the sh that we capture I mean, some of them are real eel like the orange ruffy that was a w ones menu until we started going down thousands of people over the surface knocking wn these ancient carls to get through where the fish are. And they can be at least a ndred years old and some are thought to be as much as 200 and it takes 30 years for em to mature, how many 30 year old cows have you eaten lately, you know. erny:Really tough Id imagined with that meat. Sylvia:Not many. Stewart:Old water, vin Kelly raises a question Sylvia:There was one more thing though, because its a current and an important question, much of aqua culture is powered by wild fish that e fed to the cultivated fish, think salmon, now you might hear salmon former say, oh like takes 5 or 6 times the amount of feed to get a pound of salmon, 5 to 1 or 6 to or maybe only 4 to 1. But its not, thats not real accounting because it took a lot plans to the other, the foreign of the food chain to make the little guys that made e bigger guys, make the bigger guys to get to the little fish that they feed to the lmon. So if you want real accounting, you have to start, the sunlight and plants and ats were prochlorococcus does the heaving lifting to power the tiny little copepods bad as big as canal on a printed page and their gazillions of them that feed to tiny sh and the larvae of everybody else out there. Its a very complicated system but s, the simple part is, if you want an honest accounting, it takes to make a tuna fish ndwich for example, you have to start at the beginning, something like plants and u have to think how old is the tuna that went into your sandwich or you sushi or shimi because it takes the blue fin tuna that people loved to eat, according to rbara Black in Stanford, 10 to 14 years for them to mature, they may lived to be as years s and every step of the way, you know they are eating, eating, eating, every ar. Think about a 10-year old kid, how many Big Macs and French fries and whatever se it is it goes in the making a 10-year old kid or one of you, think of a groceries ve gone to make all of condense into making or one of you now, so younger the fish the animal, the lower on the food chain, plants, some like plants chicken, its about pounds of plants to make 1 pound of chicken but for tuna, a 10-year old tuna, youve think in terms of thousands of pounds of plants. So aqua culture, any carnivores, rget it you know, the best choices are probably cat fish, tilapia, carp, grazers that ow fast you know, a year or so, but if you really wanna be smart, eat the plants. e photosynthesized figure out how do to that. Tierny:Photosynthetic scan let solves many problems, but the rest of them really interesting aqua culture solution set are king balance ecosystem, so instead of modern cultures which we know have all sort of oblems. We have poly cultures where youre being able, and this one called integrated lti tropic aqua culture Sylvia:Oh, thats a good name. Tierny:Its kinda rolls off the unge. Sylvia:Must be an acronym. Tierny:But being able to harvest from multiple opic level so you have a balance ecosystem that supports itself, so thats one thats oking promising, theres also more innovative food supplies um, like the latest when I ard of is black soldier fly larvae which lives on cow and pig dong and makes huge ounts of protein. Arthropods are really insects are really good at this kinda thing d being able to harvest that Sylvia:Which figured that a long time ago. Tierny:Yes, actly. And so um, harvesting from a food source thats a very fast turnover and um, n be grown on waste products is looking really promising. So I think um, we have to gure out aqua culture if were gonna provide enough protein Sylvia:And we have deep re plans. Tierny:Yeah. Sylvia:Unless of the animal life for marine health. ewart:And speaking of animals about bad bones, Cathy have asked, can you give us an date on the status of the sea star wasting syndrome, our coast, stars are in trouble d whats going on? Tierny:Yeah, I hear that there are some recovery um, not all places e as hard hit but it still um, it still not solve as far as I know, its still in dustry as to whats going on um, so it would happens as it this sea star are just arting to disintegrate and um, and Im not sure Sylvia:They have calcium carbonate ells you know, embedded in their skin and they are very sensitive to changes in the of their environment that maybe part of whats happening or it maybe something tally unrelated. Tierny:Yeah. It still a mystery um, that um, part, some areas are covering and another part are still um, seeing it so, it still a big area of search. Stewart:Another item in the news is supposedly theres a great big El Nio king shape in the East Pacific. You guys have any use on that? Tierny:We dont know its going to be a big one, that still unknown um, because, well its looking similar what we saw in 97 based on these images and its kinda interesting Stewart:Recall, mind us what happened in 97? Tierny:97 was a big El Nio Stewart:And there was what? ooding and droughts and Tierny:Flooding when you have warm water about of um, you ow you just have a shifting a bit, just like what we see when were raising the mperature of the ocean, you have a huge shifting and whos hitting home populations , falling out, I mean I think um, 82 was another huge one that um, swipe through lapagos and Galapagos has never, never recovered from that. Stewart:The biodiversity the ocean, what goes down on that kind of future change occurs? Tierny:Well, and you ve um, kelp needs a certain temperature to prosper so when you dont have the kelp rce, kelp force to go down and then everything they know the hundreds and hundreds of ecies that relying on the kelp forest. Sylvia:I think its a really interesting, the od news is that humans have the capacity for the first time to even understand mething about how El Nio is formed and why. When NOAA, the agency, National Oceanic d Atmospheric Agency was first glued together from the several departments of the vernment. The primary goal was to try to get the atmospheric guys together with the ean community so that they were kind of force to get their act together. That the ean after all drives climate and weather but you dont even know, read lot about when u hear about climate change, its about the atmosphere what were putting into the mosphere but you should listen up, its the ocean that drives all of it, it really apes the temperature and that does great currents, the moving, the air above it, eating much of what we think of is the wind and holding the planet steady is the eat thermo regulator. The whole concept of understanding El Nio really got it derway in the 1970s, its been known of the coast of Peru where its really clear enomenon when it happens when that tongue of warm water comes across the Pacific and shes the shores of Peru where its usually cold temperate water with kelp forest like have here and everything changes for while and bacteria of, cause the sulfur cteria blacken the painted surfaces, they called it the black painter comes around ristmas time when it happens so they think of it El Nio was the child, the Christ ild that comes around Christmas. Stewart:Question Sylvia. The microbes which youve en focusing out of the ocean which is so responsible for atmosphere and other things care about and bottom of the food chain and all of this. Is microbial life much fected do you think by climate change or is it shrug off things like that? lvia:Which microbes are we talking about? Tierny:Yeah. Stewart:Lately you know, they ank out a lot of oxygen we probably care about Sylvia:We dont know. I think we ould, it has been noticed though this since 1950 theres a decline of photosynthetic e phytoplankton, by some maybe you pin a lot on a few studies but by some analysis it much as 40%, thats a lot. I cant imagine that is really that much globally but even its 5%, you lose 5% of your lungs, you noticed. Theres enough stability in what ready exist that is taken so long to get it to the place that it is. It may take a ng while before the affects of losing the big chunk of your and think about the rest that have been cut, think about, were down in North America to about 5% of the d grove forest, they are the most productive of all in terms of generating oxygen. w a new forest grows fast and you get a lot of turnover but think of the bio mask of redwood tree, with all these little needles doing their thing and all the masses and l the ferns and all the rest of it, its not just you know, like a lawn where you get otosynthesis acting very quickly but theres no substitute for what weve destroyed ready. Stewart:You mentioned old water being very acidic and coming up in the welling, so um, what makes it old and why is it more acidic and if its old, I wouldve ought that this is, theres only not the acidification that were crossing is the ganization but Tierny:Yeah, no it is. Cause its been sinking, its been sinking rbon as well and then once youre um, so what makes it old is um, not reaching the rface and so and also, so as its traveling its also um, taking in a lot of the carbon oxide from the respiratory processes of all the life that is in the ocean as well. that adds to it in addition to the carbon from, and so we have um, more mixing in e surface waters but when youre very deep Stewart:Is that releasing carbon dioxide erny:The ocean actually releases a ton of carbon dioxide um, it sinks a lot of carbon oxide but it releases a lot of carbon dioxide as well. But when its very low, all at stays in and all the respiratory um, excellent of that came process and all the fe goes down there, it doesnt get mix, it stays down there and not having access to e surface. Stewart:So release all the water and you said its acidic, theres also full nutrients, right? Thats why this upwelling, so this incredibly filtered by other rse, megafauna areas so Tierny:Yeah. Sylvia:Where you get first the microbe plants at make the megafauna possible, its the food chain, you get the nutrients I mean, you uldnt get blue whales in Monterey Bay if you didnt have a heck a lot of phytoplankton t there to start with, that makes the grow possible if it makes the whales possible. d heres the other thing you know, I attend a number of food security conferences cause Im really curious that the thought that we have to kill fish for secure food, curity, well we dont, but the idea of it, forming is very tightly connected to rtilizer you know, youre very conscious of where the nutrients come from because the rn and other things to prosper and the ocean theres no waste you know, the ytoplankton is eaten by little copepods that poop, fertilizer back into the system, ttle fish eat the copepods and they poop and it goes back into the system, the whales t the little fish that eat the copepods that you know, so on and so on and make whale op. Stewart:I just realized I have no idea what the whale poop is like. Weve all ar about whale, series and stuffs like that. Tierny:Sometimes its pink, for all times s pink Sylvia:Well its just Stewart:It just puts Sylvia:Whatever it is Stewart, the ytoplankton just as, mmmm, delicious. (Audience laughs) Tierny:Manna from heaven. ewart:Megafauna famous, were moving nutrients or else, these guys Sylvia:Yeah, thats ght and but, they always giving back and see its part of what the chemistry of the ean and people wanna go swimming in it. (Audience laughs) Stewart:Coming down in the d youre asked each of you Kevin Kellys question, what are the really outstanding estions and mysteries that we still have and both of you focus on how much knowledge u understand in the last 200 years and how much is you know, the only 5% map that ve been a lot of places and you know, you showed us the current you know what a rrent was a hundred years ago which is needed theres awareness. So a lot has known t what is unknown and it is important to find out. Sylvia:You first Tierny. erny:Well I think our biggest questions are how are we going to define our lationship with the ocean and how are we going to be able to extract what we need om it without destroying it? And weve you know, in some ways we do know a lot about e ocean, but in a lot of ways its still a total mystery. We cannot predict a lot of at happens in the ocean. Stewart:Give some examples. What are some things that rprises recently, we thought we have figured out. Tierny:Well I mean still the certainty of El Nio, were getting there but we still dont know if its going to be a g one until were about maybe 3 to 4 months into it Mil Vivec. Its gonna be a big one, mean we can certify if we say its going to be big one cause write in it and I mean ats the way ocean science is I mean we have, weve just found this incredible decadal ocess in the ocean called the Pacific Decadal Oscillation whereas El Nio is more like 17 month phenomenon, the Pacific Decadal Oscillation is more on the order of 20 to 30 ars and we get you know, 2 to 3 degree temperature changes on our coast when were in certain phase of the Pacific Decadal Oscillation and then when you have an El Nio on p of that, oh man, were really hammering the ocean when we, and so, and we didnt know at Pacific had this huge process in it. We just discovering that with proxies with sh scales and you know, were finding that out so our forecast ability is still cking you know um, so the worst, were trying to put it all together, thats why cable servatories that gives us 24/7 presence in the ocean where we can weather the storms u know, thats when a lot of the big actions happening in the ocean. When you have a ge storm, massive, massive string up, lots of carbon sinking, lots of nutrients and ats when the science through like get my equipment out of there, its gonna get stroyed, thats when all the equipment has to be there because those are the big isodic events that are defining the character of the ocean, so Stewart:So you send ave robots into the stormy areas Tierny:Yes, yes. That dont get sea sick and wont e you. Stewart:Dont get bored. Tierny:Cynically. Sylvia:The latter part is Tierny:I ow, no litigious robots allowed. So I think thats my biggest, my biggest question , are we going to recognize the importance of the ocean fast enough to put our money ere amount is and supply the resources financially and emotionally and cognitively to udy the ocean. Stewart:Do Science do preservation and sounds like um, what else? lvia:I certainly go along with all that youve said and maybe just add a few touches at we, I think President Obama made a comment that our highest priority must be to ep the world safe for our children. Well he was thinking guns and things, but that mment our highest priority must be to keep the world safe with those coming along, s what our predecessors in a way did for us, our parents took care of us as kids and sh us well, provided for us not so we could just be the end of the world but a new ginning for whatever might fall when here we are, beginning of this new century armed th unprecedented knowledge and unprecedented opportunity. Stewart:And unprecedented norance hopefully I mean Science Sylvia:Unprecedented ignorance Stewart:The things we nt know, so what are the important things that we dont know? Sylvia:We dont know why e ocean matters, we dont know that, I mean I think I have a glimpse, it keeps us ive. The ocean is our life support system, it just is and the most important thing at we take out of the ocean is our existence. Its not oil, gas, fish, crabs, oysters anything else or even the fun that we enjoy. Its, we need to protect the ocean as our lives depend on it because they do and knowing that, Im making the connections u know, were so fascinated with going high in the sky and we should be, I love it and s paid off enormously, we have all these great benefits so into satellites and ansportation all over the place and the knowledge that we now have is largely because d we burn through millions of years of fossil energy to get us to where we are and ybe the greatest gift of that is to see that we got to change our ways or else were ok literally. But we have neglected the ocean, weve taken it for granted, we have agined the ocean was too big to fail, our policies we have a billion dollar agency in r government, National Marine Fisheries Service, its dedicated to catching, killing, rketing fish and helping fisherman do it with subsidized loans and things you know, s, what are we going to, so lift above that attitude about the ocean not as a place om which we extract. Its okay to fish, its okay to take some things but as long as u are not disrupting the basic engine that keeps us alive and thats what is lacking, that connection between, partly because we dont, we cant supply straight answers to me of the straight questions people ask because we only done this much but the ecautionary principle would say, well, we know what we know now having explored maybe doesnt it seem obvious that so important. Why arent we going flat out as we did in e 60s to go sky work with all the benefits that have come about and while robots are eat discover at, theres no substitute for having human beings in the ocean, 5,000 of urs underwater, I wouldnt think the way I think and I not literally been there and or el driven to share the view with all of you if I had been there. Jim Cameron who de that great dissect to the deepest part of the ocean and came back, fortunately, he id little kids dont wanna grow up to be robots, they wanna be explorers, they wanna ow, they wanna go, they wanna be there, I wanna be there, I want you to go there, I nt you to see for yourself and even if you get sea sick or if you have to go into the a, I mean you get pilots flying into the Ivan hurricane to see whats there. Well if ey can do that, human beings and tiny little piece of machinery up in the sky, why nt we take the risk and forget about suing people for heaven sakes and go into the ean, I mean weve got to be the greatest risk is youre not taking risk and getting out ere and really understanding how the ocean works. Tierny:Theyre not mutually clusive by any measure, I mean youve got your man, youre woman on subs Sylvia:But not ny. Tierny:and your ROVs, your AUVs Sylvia:Yeah, we need them all. Tierny:Your open Vs Sylvia:You need a whole tool box. Tierny:You need all of them, theyre by no means, no means mutually exclusive and I mean seriously 99% of our living space and weve en less than 5% with our own eyes we got a lot out there, we got a lot of exploring do. Sylvia:Dont you know how this airplane works? (Laughs) Stewart:A real last estion, do you guys, for Science and for pleasure, where would you like to dive for ience and for pleasure? Tierny:Like to dive next? Stewart:Dive for Science or for easure Tierny:Tomorrow or Stewart:Just you know where do you wanna go? lvia:Anywhere 50 years ago. Stewart:Tierny go ahead. Tierny:And even 50 years ago. lvia:I almost study were 50 years ago, Id love to see Tierny:Thats science Sylvia:50 ars from now to see what it helps Stewart:Youve like to go really deep Sylvia:I love go, Im so jealous of Cameron for Stewart:I noticed that. (Laughs) Sylvia:You know ke holstered him and Ive point it out that I fit in that little submarine better than does. (Laughs) Sylvia:And he like kinda waffled there for a while, maybe someday but d actually Tierny:And no woman has been to the bottom of the ocean. Sylvia:Its there be done. Tierny:No woman, that is not acceptable. Stewart:What are you gonna do with ep dive? Tierny:Yes, we can clap it up. (Audience clapping) Stewart:Where would you ke to go deep now? Where do you think would be most Sylvia:Well, I mean, it be cool go to the deepest part of the ocean because if you can go there you can go anywhere the ocean. Stewart:Alright. Sylvia:And were across the bay, deep ocean exploration d research, their plans with a glass submarine, glass is a wonderful material, very rong under pressure and we ought to be exploring but it might take 50 million dollars build a 3 persons of made of glass. Most of that would be testing the actual ilding of it would maybe be 5 million. How many yachts are there that cost a hundred llion dollars? Stewart:Alright. Sylvia:And we could go to where no yacht has ever en around trip. Most of have been one way. (Laughs) Stewart:Inside reading 20,000 aves under the sea right now to build or burn this sounds very familiar and it was e great long fantasy you must have had and I think this is okay Silicon Valley, lets it you know. A glass submarine for people to see what youve seen. Sylvia:And not st a handful of lucky scientist go or lucky film directors explores who make films so ey can explore with submarines that build themselves. Um, but nothing wrong with at, Id love that entrepreneurial spirit. Tierny:They just should have made one for u. Sylvia:Yeah, why not too. Well, it shouldnt be just a privilege to place for a ndful of eyes and minds to go, we need poets there, we need to get the corporate aders there, we need the heads of state to see what theyre doing to the ocean, we ed kids to go too till people to take care of their planet, I mean really, we need cess to the sea. Stewart:Tierny where do you wanna dive? Tierny:The place I would ve to dive most is the first place where my son and daughter around scuba air with me d we can stay deep for a long time and really get to know with some fish in their own ea and I dont know where thats going to be, maybe Indonesia. Put it this way, my ughter is quite the fish, half-brothers not far behind um, theyre still not old ough to get certified but when they all divers as going to be the place, that is ing to be one of the most special places ever. Stewart:I like it, get kids in the ter, you get politicians in the water Sylvia:Yes. Stewart:Change the world. Thank