Buarque is a member of Institute of Education of UNESCO. He created a NGOMission Child,
which sponsors an income transfer program for thousands of families and
is funded by private enterprises. He was awarded the Jabuti prize of
Literature in 1995, in the â€œHumanitiesâ€ category. He is a staunch
defender of the â€œrevolutionâ€¦ through educationâ€, a line of thought
touted by important Brazilian intellectuals, as AnÃsio Teixeira, Darcy Ribeiro and Paulo Freire.
However, his stance on this subject should not be confused with that of
those other thinkers, who â€“ especially Freire â€“ also envisioned a
"revolution in education". Buarqueâ€™s approach is much more conventional, uncritical of traditional education.
Buarque is also a proposer of an alternative class analysis of modern
capitalist societies. According to him, in modern capitalism, the
increasing substitution of human labour for automated machines tends to
make employed workers a privileged caste, while a new layer of
â€œexcludedâ€ people â€“ those who have no jobs, no insurance, no health care
â€“ is formed, whose members are the real victims of social inequality.
As this new underclass, however, does not have the ability to
effectively counter its exploitation by capitalism, Buarqueâ€™s thought
constantly tends towards some kind of substitutionism, in which political action by wide masses is replaced by government or institutional action on their behalf.
Rizal Ramli (born December 10, 1953 in Padang, Indonesia, West Sumatra) is an Indonesian politician. He is a prominent Indonesian economist graduated from Boston University
with a Ph.D degree in economics in 1990. Ramli served as Coordinating
Minister for Economics Affairs (August 2000 - July 2001) and Minister of
Finance (July 2001) under President Abdurrahman Wahid administration. He was the chairman of Komite Bangkit Indonesia (Indonesia Awakening Committee) and an independent candidate for president in the July 2009 elections.