The first Chautauquans arrived for Tuesday’s 2 p.m. Interfaith
Lecture almost two hours early, said Maureen Rovegno. By 1:30 p.m., the
seats were packed for “Storm on the Horizon,” a character-interpretation
by members of the Colonial Williamsburg Foundation.
Rovegno, the assistant director of the Department of Religion, did
not seem surprised by the large turnout, though. When other members of
the Foundation performed at Chautauqua in 2009, the event was just as
When the performance began a few minutes early, probably to
accommodate the restless crowd, narrator Jim Horn introduced the actors
and gave some background of the history. Horn also is the vice president
of Research and Historical Interpretation for Colonial Williamsburg.
Ron Carnegie interpreted the character of George Washington and Bill
Barker played Thomas Jefferson.
At this time, near the turn of the 19th century, Washington was being
asked to run for re-election to the presidency, and Jefferson had just
written the Kentucky Resolution in response to the Alien and Sedition
There were two main theories of government at this time: the
Democratic-Republicans, who demanded that power be in the hands of the
people, and the Federalists, who believed in a more central control of
power in the government.
Washington first greeted the audience with a “Good afternoon,
friends, citizens, good people of the United States of America,” dressed
in an 18th-century style black suit, knee-high socks and black shoes
with buckles. After admitting to the audience that he will not run for
president again, Washington reflected on his presidency.
The three pillars of government, he said, should be an indissoluble
union, a sacred regard to public justice and a willingness to put aside
the conflicts and differences that ravage America internally.
“The independence and liberty, which is now ours, is the result of
joint efforts, joint struggles, joint disappointments and joint
successes,” Washington said.
Washington also emphasized the importance of the Constitution as the
supreme law and the responsibility people must take over their own
power. The sovereignty of the nation belongs to the people, and they
must not let any branch of government encroach on another.
But most of what Washington said stirred knowing laughter from the crowds.
“It is just as important that we endeavor to avoid seeing factions
arise in the spirit and fury of party politics,” Washington said. “It
causes a man to be a servant not of his country but rather merely a
The dangers of going into debt incited the occasional “mmm-hmm” or
“ahhh” of agreement from an audience member, but one particular comment
sent the crowd laughing and clapping so much that Washington had to
pause until it ended.
“Let us always remember that the debts caused by such actions must be
paid and never left ungenerously to be paid by our children or our
children’s children which ought to have been paid by ourselves,”
Washington said. “For debt to be paid, there must be revenue. For there
to be revenue, there must be taxes, and there have never been taxes
created which are not inconvenient and unpleasant.”
Although Washington never broke character, the reactions of the
audience made it clear that Washington was getting the message through.
The audience heard, perhaps for the first time, the warnings Washington
gave against conflicts that now plague American society and threaten the
nation’s power and unity.
One of Barker’s closing remarks completed the puzzle. Although
Jefferson and Washington’s concerns about the future were eerily
correct, they were not seeing the future.
“They knew no more of what was going to happen on the 24th day of
August 1776 or 1811 than we know what is going to happen tomorrow,”
Barker said, out of character. “So I think to be well-read in history,
as Mr. Jefferson said, to know where we have been, helps us better to
know where we are and, with the hope, where we are going.”
To more laughter and clapping, Washington admitted that even though
he “dare not suppose that any of these words that (he) share with you
will long be remembered,” they were nonetheless important. Then he
thanked the audience and took a seat.
When Jefferson took the stage, he greeted Washington as “Your
Excellency,” took off his hat and began a more conversational speech.
He joked that the audience had been rude in not standing up to greet
former President Washington, but then spun it around to applaud them for
it because, after all, the government is fully theirs, not
It was clear that Jefferson’s stance was as a Democratic-Republican
and that the Constitution demands that power should be in the hands of
the people at all levels of government.
Jefferson denounced the Alien and Sedition acts for their bias to one
party and explained the Kentucky Resolution. Jefferson said he
considered these acts, not laws, created to keep one particular party in
Although Barker stayed in character when portraying Jefferson, it was
during the Q-and-A period that he proved his vast knowledge about
Jefferson. Barker has been interpreting Jefferson with Colonial
Williamsburg for 17 years, and with other groups for almost 15 years
Washington and Jefferson loosened up for the questions but still provided answers in character.
For example, when one woman asked if either Washington or Jefferson
foresaw women’s right to vote, Washington stated plainly that he would
have to see a woman first take interest in government, and he had not
yet seen that.
Another man posed his question to Presidents Washington and
Jefferson. Washington balked at the insult, because Jefferson had not
yet been elected president, and then jokingly replied, “You know his
ambitions well, sir.”
To bring the performance full circle, a question about each man’s
justification for owning slaves received more serious answers and
reminded the audience of the theme for the week.
“The strongest pillar for our success is the continuation of our
Union … and when one considers the fact that slavery is dying a natural
death, to risk the survival of our Union to bring that death about
prematurely seems most unwise,” Washington said. “It must be done
slowly, it must be nearly imperceptible and these men must be brought to
a level of education necessary that they might live as free members of a
free society. To simply cast them adrift immediately without giving
them anything to hold onto — I fear that will be conduct of much
inconvenience and mischief.”
James Horn is vice president of research for the Colonial Williamsburg
Foundation. He is the author of numerous books and articles on colonial
America, most recently A Land As God Made It: Jamestown and the Birth of America (2005), and is currently editing the writings of Captain John Smith for the Library of America series.