In confronting mass atrocities, what do international systems of justice owe to the victims? A panel of global experts including Richard Haas and General Wesley Clark address the issues- Council on Foreign Relations
Wesley Clark is a retired four-star general of the United States Army.
Clark was valedictorian of his class at West Point, was awarded a Rhodes Scholarship to the University of Oxford where he earned a master's degree in economics, and later graduated from the Command and General Staff College with a master's degree in military science.
He spent 34 years in the Army and the Department of Defense, receiving many military decorations, several honorary knighthoods, and a Presidential Medal of Freedom.
Richard N. Haass
Richard Haass is president of the Council on Foreign Relations, the preeminent independent, nonpartisan organization in the United States dedicated to the study of American foreign policy. Until June 2003, Haass was director of policy planning for the Department of State as well as US coordinator for policy toward the future of Afghanistan and US envoy to the Northern Ireland peace process. He was also special assistant to President George H.W. Bush and senior director for Near East and South Asian affairs on the staff of the National Security Council from 1989 to 1993. Haass is the author or editor of eleven books on American foreign policy, including War of Necessity, War of Choice: A Memoir of Two Iraq Wars and one book on management. He is a Rhodes Scholar.
Victoria K. Holt is a Senior Associate at the Henry L. Stimson Center, where she co-directs the Future of Peace Operations program, which addresses US policy and international capacity for advancing security and stability in war-torn societies.
Her recent publications include studies on the protection of civilians by military forces, African peacekeeping capacity, and rule of law aspects of peace operations. Ms. Holt joined the Center in 2001, bringing policy and political expertise from her professional experience within the State Department, Congress, and the NGO field.
She previously served as Senior Policy Advisor at the State Department (Legislative Affairs), focusing on peacekeeping and UN issues. As Executive Director of the Emergency Coalition for US Financial Support of the United Nations, she directed a bipartisan coalition of leading statesmen and non-governmental organizations.
Holt previously worked as a senior Congressional staffer for seven years, focusing on defense and foreign policy issues for members of the House Armed Services Committee. In addition, she has worked for other Washington-based policy institutes on international affairs. A graduate of the Naval War College, Holt also holds a BA (with honors) from Wesleyan University. She is a board member of Women in International Security (WIIS).
Edward C. Luck is Senior Vice President and Director of Studies at the International Peace Institute and Special Advisor to the UN Secretary-General, in which capacity he primarily focuses on the responsibility to protect.
David Scheffer holds an endowed professorship and serves as the Director of the Center for International Human Rights. He teaches International Human Rights Law and International Criminal Law. He was previously the U.S. Ambassador at Large for War Crimes Issues (1997-2001) and led the U.S. delegation in U.N. talks establishing the International Criminal Court.
During his ambassadorship, Scheffer negotiated and coordinated U.S. support for the establishment and operation of international and hybrid criminal tribunals and U.S. responses to atrocities anywhere in the world. He also headed the Atrocities Prevention Inter-Agency Working Group. During the first term of the Clinton Administration, Scheffer served as senior adviser and counsel to the U.S. Representative to the United Nations, Dr. Madeleine Albright, and served from 1993 through 1996 on the Deputies Committee of the National Security Council.