The Future: Is the rule of law more powerful than the rule of the gun? Are changes needed?
A round table discussion with: David M. Crane, Special Court for Sierra Leone; Sir Desmond DeSilva, Special Court for Sierra Leone; Whitney Harris, International Military Tribunal, Nuremberg; Hassan Jallow, International Criminal Tribunal for Rwanda; Henry King, International Military Tribunal, Nuremberg; Luis Moreno-Ocampo, International Criminal Court; Robert Petit, Extraordinary Chambers in the Courts of Cambodia; Stephen Rapp, Special Court for Sierra Leone; and David Tolbert, International Criminal Tribunal for the former Yugoslavi.
The conference was hosted by The American Society of International Law (ASIL), in cooperation with The Robert H. Jackson Center, Washington University's Whitney R. Harris Institute for Global Legal Studies, Syracuse University College of Law, and the Chautauqua Institution.
David M. Crane
David M Crane is an American who was the Prosecutor of the Special Court for Sierra Leone from April 2002 until July 15, 2005.
Sir Desmond De Silva
Sir Desmond Lorenz de Silva, QC, KStJ, (born 13 December 1939) is a prominent British lawyer, and former United Nations Chief War Crimes Prosecutor in Sierra Leone.
Born in the Gambia in 1950 Hassan B. Jallow, studied law at the University of Dar es Salaam Tanzania (1973), the Nigerian Law School (1976) and the University College, London (1978). He worked as State Attorney in the Attorney Generals' Chambers in the Gambia from 1976 until 1982 when he was appointed Solicitor General.
Justice Hassan Bubacar Jallow served as Gambiaâ€™s Attorney-General and Minister of Justice from 1984 to 1994 and subsequently as a Judge of the Gambiaâ€™s Supreme Court from 1998 - 2002. In 1998, he was appointed by the United Nations Secretary General to serve as an international legal expert and carry out a judicial evaluation of the International Criminal Tribunal for Rwanda and the International Criminal Tribunal for Yugoslavia. He also has served as a legal expert for the Organisation of African Unity and worked on the drafting and conclusion of the African Charter on Human and Peopleâ€™s Rights which was adopted in 1981. He has also served the Commonwealth in various respects including chairing the Governmental Working Group of Experts in Human Rights. Until his appointment as Prosecutor to the ICTR, Justice Jallow was a Judge of the Appeals Chamber of the Special Court for Sierra Leone on the appointment of the UN Secretary-General in 2002 as well as a member of the Commonwealth Secretariat Arbitral Tribunal.
Justice Jallow was awarded the honour of Commander of the National Order of the Republic of Gambia.
Luis Moreno-Ocampo is the Prosecutor of the International Criminal Court (ICC).
He is responsible for investigating and prosecuting war crimes [crimes against humanity and genocide]. Moreno-Ocampo was born in Buenos Aires and is a citizen of Argentina where he gained a reputation prosecuting abuses by senior military officials and for his work to combat corruption.
Robert Petit is Extraordinary Chambers in the Courts of Cambodia.
Stephen J. Rapp of Iowa is Ambassador-at-Large for War Crimes Issues. Appointed by President Obama, he was confirmed by the Senate, and assumed his duties on September 8, 2009. Prior to his appointment, he served as Prosecutor of the Special Court for Sierra Leone beginning in January 2007, leading the prosecutions of former Liberian President Charles Taylor and other persons alleged to bear the greatest responsibility for the atrocities committed during the civil war in Sierra Leone. During his tenure, his office achieved the first convictions in history for sexual slavery and forced marriage as crimes against humanity, and for attacks on peacekeepers and for recruitment and use of child soldiers as violations of international humanitarian law.
David Scheffer holds an endowed professorship and serves as the Director of the Center for International Human Rights. He teaches International Human Rights Law and International Criminal Law. He was previously the U.S. Ambassador at Large for War Crimes Issues (1997-2001) and led the U.S. delegation in U.N. talks establishing the International Criminal Court.
During his ambassadorship, Scheffer negotiated and coordinated U.S. support for the establishment and operation of international and hybrid criminal tribunals and U.S. responses to atrocities anywhere in the world. He also headed the Atrocities Prevention Inter-Agency Working Group. During the first term of the Clinton Administration, Scheffer served as senior adviser and counsel to the U.S. Representative to the United Nations, Dr. Madeleine Albright, and served from 1993 through 1996 on the Deputies Committee of the National Security Council.
David Tolbert is the Executive Director of the Central European and Eurasian Law Initiative (CEELI), a public service program of the American Bar Association, with its headquarters in Washington, D.C. CEELI works to promote the Rule of Law throughout Eastern Europe and the former Soviet Union and has bolstered legal reform in 28 countries since 1991.
Before becoming CEELI Executive Director in February 2001, Mr. Tolbert served nearly five years at the United Nations International Criminal Tribunal for the former Yugoslavia in The Hague, Netherlands. He initially was the Senior Legal Adviser, Registry, where he headed the legal department and also supervised the Victims and Witnesses Section. He later was appointed as Chef de Cabinet to the President of the International Tribunal, during the presidency of Judge Gabrielle Kirk McDonald.
Prior to working at the International Tribunal, Mr. Tolbert served as Chief, General Legal Division for the United Nations Relief and Works Agency in Vienna, Austria and Gaza. He previously was a Lecturer in International Law at the University of Hull, England, and Visiting Professor at the Universidade Federal Espirto Santo, Vitoria, Brazil. Mr. Tolbert began his legal career as an attorney at Gerdes, Mason, Wilson, Tolbert and Simpson in Charlotte, North Carolina.
Mr. Tolbert holds an LL.M. with distinction from the University of Nottingham, England; a J.D. from the University of North Carolina; and B.A. magna cum laude from Furman University. He speaks German and Portuguese.