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Welcome I am Stephanie Bell-Rose of the Goldman Sachs Foundation and I am delighted to welcome all of you to our fourth ceremony to honor the winners of the Goldman Sachs Foundation's prizes for excellence in international education. It's a special pleasure of course to welcome our distinguished panelists who are currently in various stages of being mike'd up so that they can join us in a moment. Let me quickly say a word about the mission of the foundation which is to promote the development of the next generation of leaders. We believe that the best of them will be extremely well equipped with the knowledge and skills to succeed in what has rapidly become an interconnected world. And so to us that means that they must master knowledge about the economies, political systems, languages and challenges of societies around the world. And of course they must be culturally savvy. The prizes for excellence in international education ensure that our nation's education system will indeed produce this kind of well prepared global leader for the US and for the world. The prizes were established in 2003 with the Asia Society at the helm to recognize the most creative and effective programs and people who are rising to the critical challenge of transforming our schools, our communities and our universities into world class incubators for the next generation of global leaders. And these prizes are having a powerful impact. Already as a direct outcome of this work five states have established their own regional prize programs for excellence in international education. And for that we have to thank the outstanding leadership of the Asia Society, its CEO the very able Vishakha Desai and the staff who have so energetically designed and executed the prizes for excellence in international affairs, most especially Vivian Stewart whose vision for international education has been so very inspiring. Before I introduce her let me quickly also say a word of thanks to Sara Link of the Goldman Sachs Foundation who has worked very closely with the Asia Society in executing this lunch for the entire program. And so now let me turn it over to Vivian Stuart who is Vice President for Education at the Asia Society. She oversees the Society's programs and partnerships that promote the study of Asia and other world regions cultures, languages and global issues in American Schools. And she helps to build connections between the US schools and Asian education leaders. Prior to this big role she also had an exceptional leadership role at the Carnegie Corporation of New York where she helped to shape education reform agendas around the nation and so Vivian, with many thanks to you, please take it over. Than you very much Stephanie and thank you all for coming today. I do know what some of your schedules are like and I know what your traffic is like, so it's amazing that almost everybody is here. Welcome to the Asia society. What knowledge is most important for our children? In the 18th and early 19th century an agricultural American society had once set of answers to that question through its schools. From the mid 19th through the 20th century with industrialization preceding a pace scientific subjects entered the curriculum in a big way. In the global and digital age of 2015 2020 and 2030 what will be most important for our high school and college graduates to know and be able to do. We will shortly hear some different perspectives on that question from our distinguished panel. And I don't know yet what they are going to say. But as Stephanie already mentioned, here at Asia Society as in Goldman Sachs we believe the one critical and hitherto neglected part of the answer lies in increasing our students knowledge about the world regions, cultures, economies and languages so that they will be navigate the challenges of a world economy and function whether as citizens or as leaders in a world that gets more and more interconnected everyday. We know unfortunately from some Asia Society surveys that hitherto American students have had very little opportunity to learn about Asia in schools, despite the fact that it's 60 percent of the world's population and will be shortly a gigantic part of the world economy. We also know that American students are behind their peers in other industrialized countries, in these world knowledge domains. In fact they are more behind in these domains than in math and science even though that's an issue that is very prominent in our thinking. So at Asia Society our education program is devoted to a national effort to raise these issues higher on the nationa agenda. We work with the network of states to promote international education through state policies. We have a nation wide initiative to promote Asian languages and especially Chinese which is a very neglected language in our schools. We are creating an urban, a network of urban international study schools, including several in New York, to bring the world to low income and minority children. And we have as much material as we can create in a seven day a week period on our for teachers and students on our Asian Society websites. You will find a brief description of some of these activities in your folders and we will have some publications by the elevators which you are welcome to take if you are interested. Our goal is that every school should be an international school and every graduate globally literate. Now that's a big task and no organization can accomplish that need to changes alone. And we are grateful to the many, many organizations who partner with us, both in this room and elsewhere, and in particular and central to this effort is our partnership with the Goldman Sachs Foundation. And we are deeply grateful to the Foundation for its leadership, its financial support and its imagination in creating and running this prizes program. Over the first three years these prizes of $25,000 each have honored 19 schools, media and technology projects and state policy initiatives. The prizes have certainly brought greater attention to these efforts and as Stephanie has indicated they are also stimulating further innovation because they are showing practical and imaginative ways to put the world into world class education. The first three prizes programs were held in Washington DC and so this year we are delighted to hold the fourth series in New York. But before we have the pleasure of honoring this years winners and its really is a pleasure, because these winners are gone through lots and lots of wetting to get to this stage, I would like to call upon Vishaka Desai to moderate our panel on accelerating the educational response to globalization. And please, since our program is very packed, do continue to eat while you are listening. Thank you and could our panelists please come up, thank you. Good afternoon. And I must say that this is a very, very special occasion for all of us because often when people come to the Asia Society they know that we are really committed to a three dimensional understanding of Asia. They know that we do lots of things in arts and culture. We do many policy programs, business programs right here in this room but often time's people say what do you do in education? I know you committed to this but what do you really do? Because the work we do at the national level and the international level is often not as visible and so we are really thrilled to do this right here, both for our educator audience but also for our other colleagues and part of the extended family of the Asia Society, to say that in fact teaching and training of students, preparing our students for this new shared future is the highest priority of this institution. And as Vivian and Stephanie have said it is as much to do with the fact that the world they are going to live in is a very different world from the world we live in. And we know that parents and teachers and educators are beginning to think about to think about that. For the longest time people have said that while the idea of globalization is now completely accepted as part of our economic understanding of the world, that perhaps the education field has been somewhat slow to respond to this idea of what it means for our students in the future. I was just talking to Charlie Kolb who was just saying that, from the Committee on Economic Development, that parents obviously know this because on their website the report that gets most frequently downloaded is the report we did with them on international education. More than early education, more than other things, so Charlie thank you for sharing that information. But it also says something about how parents care. They are worried. Why, so many of them, even in public schools, when we ask with the College Board to learn about who would want to offer a Chinese language. The response is overwhelming. From poor neighborhoods, urban schools, from private schools you name it. It's because people know they need to do something about this. What we are going to do for this brief moment, the discussion we have together is to really we have amazing group of people here. It's not very often that in the education setting we actually pull together such diverse and distinguished group of panelists with us to really kind of think about and share their insight into the need for international education, where Asia is headed, and where we need to think about for our kids as to what they are going to learn. So let me just quickly introduce all of our panelists. You have their full bios, so in the interest of time I am actually not going to go through their very, very distinguished career. The fact is that we got them all together is an amazing feat. And that has to do with Vivian and her team really being persistent, but I think it also has something to do with the cause and I trust this because all of you really feel it's so important. So on my farthest right is Joel Klein, of course now he has become a kind of a rock star of New York City. Every time you turn around perhaps a controversial one sometime, but the truth is that what he is doing as the Chancellor of the Department of Education here at our schools in New York is nothing sort of phenomenal and Joel has been a real friend of the institution and the work we are doing in our schools right here in New York City. Thank you very much Joel for being here. And then next to Joel is Bob Hormats, also a good friend of the institution, who is the Vice Chairman of Goldman Sachs International. And of course one could call him the economic guru of Goldman Sachs and his understanding on Asia and Asian political matters is really something lots of people pay attention to so thank you very much for being here. Then on my left is Orville Schell. Orville is the new member of the Asian Society team but again somebody who has known the institution for a very, very long time. Orville is the new Arthur Ross Director of our newest center on the US China relations and you will somebody who has really spent a lot of time in China, whose insight on China and US China relations are something that, again many, many, many people are interested in hearing about. So we are thrilled that Orville would be with us - was just actually kind of half settled here from Berkeley. And then next to Orville is in fact Gaston Caperton, President of the College Board, really I believe, the person behind College Board in terms of new languages, new commitment to really making our schools international. And he brings with him tremendous experience, both from his political life as well as from his commitment to education. So, thank you gentlemen for being with me and with us. What we are going to do is to have a brief discussion and if there is any time at all we might be able to take one or two questions from you. But the reason why we can't do more of that is because we of course have awards to go through as well. So I apologize in advance that it can't be as full a discussion as we would have liked. So let us start, Bob with you. And as I mentioned, I think you have been following economic developments in Asia for a very, very long time. From your perspective and from your perspective both as a an Executive at Goldman Sachs, how do you see where Asia is headed and what that's going to mean for the corporate work force? Well certainly Asia is rising as an economic power. Obviously Chinese, but it's not just Chinese, it's many, many other countries in the region. It's India, it's South Korea, even some of the smaller countries like Vietnam are becoming much more influential and will continue to grow in terms of their role in world trade and increasingly in international finance. And in order to do business there one has to do several things. One you have to understand the cultures. Different culture requires different approach to business and they are many. And ironically in this globalized world no one wants to be in a (acquiescent) [0:15:05]. They all this is this is a very heterogeneous world in the cultural sense, in regulatory sense, in business sense. So you have to as some people say think globally but act locally. It's it's sort of bromide in a way but it's also true. The second part is to develop a work force of very talented people from all the various countries in which you operate and that doesn't mean just having a Malaysian work in Malaysia. It means finding a very talented Malaysian who might be very good working in China or very talented Chinese who might be good working in a job at Frankfurt. And in fact if you look at the office in New York we have people from all over the world working, first of all because they understand the cultures in which they were initially operating but second because they understand the business. And they bring their human intellectual talents to bear. And third you have to manage a company as a company that has a global sense and that is you have to really work with foreign governments, work with regulatory agencies, work with different people who make the policies and make the economic decisions in each of these various places. And then the bottom line is you are looking for talented people around the world. You have to be, in the way you run a business; you have to be multinational, multicultural, multiethnic. And if you can integrate your best talent from around the world and make it into one seamless company, you will have a very hard time managing business in this global environment. You will look for the very best people and very in all these countries and try to give them a sense of opera mobility and a sense that they are not just part of the company in that country; they are part of the company, period. And that they have influence in New York and the and the broader corporate decisions as well as influencing the country in which they operate. Do you feel that it has changed dramatically in the last 10 years or is it something that you would have always looked for but now it's a kind of necessity that it wasn't there before. I think it changed dramatically in two respects. One Asia was not as influential in the global, financial and business world ten years ago as it is today. And second the bigger the company the broader it's scope, the more complex the management challenge. And that is if your company doubles the number of countries in which you operate, it doesn't just double the challenge, it probably multiplies it by four, five times. So you have to really work to utilize the best of your talent in whatever markets you feel they are they are going to do the best. It requires a lot of traveling. The one thing that's very important about it is you can't just use the internet or voice mail. Human contact is still critically important. And if you think you can manage a company sitting in New York and not going to Beijing or Shanghai or Delhi or Mumbai or Jakarta you are going to miss the whole game because you have to talk to these people, understand what's going on, talk to officials, talk to businesses and this the world may be flat, but that doesn't mean it's homogenous. So you have to you have to work at it much more. It's a much more complex task. And yet if you can't do it, you can't understand it and don't have people who understand it you are not going to be able to to operate successfully in this world. And it's an on going process. You can't go to Beijing and say, well I will come back in a year, no problem, two years. You got to be in Beijing every four, five or six months because of the change, same with Delhi. You have to keep up because they are changing, they are not called emerging markets for nothing. They are emerging very rapidly. And if you are not if you if your mind set isn't emerging with them and and connected with what's going on there you are certainly not going to be able to deal with it. Orville, and you have been a China hand for a very, very long time. And you have been observing the surprise of China. And today from the perspective of you as a father as well as a scholar and somebody who has been watching China, what are the kind of things do you feel that our students really need to get a handle on, when it comes to Asia, China US China relations? You know one thing that I think has become sort of indelibly clear to me as the Dean of a graduate school is that there is a kind of food chain effect that works in education. And if you simply concentrate at the college level, the graduate level, in many ways it's too late. You really have to to irrigate at the lowest levels. And I think of course China is one of my great interests, the other one that I have been very deeply involved in has been the media. And I think in this regard in terms of education it's a very interesting prospect that has arisen. Namely to merge these two things, to educate better by using the media because the media is - you know, it's transformed into your into your hand held cell phone. You can be a reporter, you can make a little video on your cell phone, go on the internet, look at YouTube and you will see what's happening. And I think this is a wonderful opportunity to to try to make students at younger levels, whether its grade school or high school, part of the global world and there is no better way. And I think any reporter; any journalist will tell you this, to learn about the world and to have an assignment people have to listen to you. They have to pay attention to you. And they will and they will educate you. And I think here in lies the great opportunity to use the new technology at the very lowest levels and high school levels and on up to as both teaching devices and curiously teaching advices not only for the students but for the people who then may be able to appreciate what comes out of that experience, why are the the sort of amazing vector is the internet. I mean it seems to me that one of the issues that we might think about is what Bob was just saying and that is that on the one hand this tremendous amount of plethora of information that's out there. You can go on the internet and learn about anything, anytime. And yet curiously, how do we use it effectively, to really be curious about the world and get the world to come in to not just our classroom but also in our understanding of the world. And perhaps there is something about the fact that the world is non homogeneous and you still need to learn the cultures, the languages, all of that even if the world is so easy for us to access through media. And that brings me really to you, Gaston and that is that at College Board you really have been at the forefront of thinking about the critical steps that the students need to take. And I was just thinking as Mr. Hormats was talking that you know there is a global pool, we have got to get the best everywhere, where are the American students going to fit into this is as important a question. So it's not just about competition but it's also about what is that collaborative talent pool going to look like with Americans there, your thoughts. First of all, I think that we hear too much it's about competition. It's much more than competition, it's about understanding. It more than prosperity, it's about peace. It's about people understanding being able to work together. It became very clear to me I have been at the College Board for about three years that we were still doing romance languages and that was it. So we just added that we do Chinese and Japanese because that's where the world was living. And to just do AP Romance Languages just wasn't enough. Its its up, you know I have a great background in in diversity. My mother was born in Kyoto, Japan and my father was born in Slatyfork, West Virginia. It couldn't have much difference more difference that that. But I wasn't born in a culture where I learned languages. English was worked well enough for me. And I didn't have the I had the opportunity but only took those courses that was sort of required. My my youngest daughter now speaks fluent Chinese I mean excuse me, - speaks fluent Hebrew, she speaks fluent Spanish, she speaks English and she has spent a semester in China, in her eight grade and picked up Chinese, a little harder than the others; but picked it up pretty quickly. So she has no fear of languages. So one of the things we have to do with these young people today is to give them exposure to languages and make it as important in the United States as around the world to know multiple languages. Yeah. Do you feel that this notion often that we've kind of got and fixed on and that is that this is the country with English as the sole language, which some people have felt very strongly, that, whether that has actually really turned people away from any sense of learning lots of languages compared to may be 20 years ago. Well first of all it's a it's a it's a great advantage that English is used across across the world. But it is also a disadvantage because you don't you don't need it everyday to survive and succeed. But I think that that it's in the AP Program that we do, it's not just about language, its about language and cultures. And so I think, that without knowing a language, without visiting in the country and using that language, you are very limited in what you really know. So I think the language and culture is could - very important. Yeah I actually remember when Vivian and I were talking to one of the NBC reporters and the person said to me "Why do I need to learn anything? I can go into a small village in Africa and they speak English" and I said because unfortunately what you think you understand is only this much and even if don't learn the language completely the fact you made an effort, says to them that you respect their culture and it's that opening on to the culture that actually still remains very, very important. I agree with you. Yeah, that's so true Chancellor. Chancellor Klein, clearly New York is after all lots of people say it's the center of the world. Some people might not agree but you know we like to think that. What do you feel are the biggest challenges for you as a Chancellor and the kind of innovative work you are doing in terms of bringing more of this notion of understanding international cultures Asia into our schools? First of all Vishaka let me thank you and the Asia Society for helping us enormously in this effort. You know, the Asia Society is a wonderful place. It has a cushy existence and it doesn't have to roll up its sleeves and get in the middle of delivering education to get - How do you know we have cushy existence? Look out the window babe. It's only our address is Park Avenue. Only - exactly. Most of my schools are in Park Avenue, but they are north of a 125th street. But I think its terrific what you are doing and I think its such a template. I think the challenges are enormous and it's - if there is a wrong route to discuss it, because everybody here is onboard for what needs to be, a total different view of America's obligation in terms of global education. All of us said it in, you know, if we wait for our colleges and universities to figure this out, we are going to lose the game. What strikes me and I'll just give you two indicators of this, and I will talk about our challenges. First of all much more heated topic, than the importance of global education in America schools is whether we should teach creationism. If you think of the amount of ink and the amount of energy that people spend, it's not on the topic we are discussing it's on creationism. Second of all we still continue to have this solution that education is somehow a state function and that the national standards or national assessments would be a mistake and both of those to me reflect, a view of America continuing to be very inwardly focused. It's not going to hurt Goldman Sachs. Goldman Sachs, IBM they are going to do just fine. All they have done is figured out a much larger pool in which to search for talent and that's what they do exceptionally well. But the implications for America, if she doesn't understand what globalization is about and how inwardly looking in terms of education there has been a limit of what we can accomplish, I think that we have found. So what we are trying to do in New York City which is a great challenge. Let's be candid, most kids in our city, they do not have a good sense of American history. I mean, one of the great shocks for me was teaching Brown vs. The Board of Education in New York City public high schools that most people did not know what it was about, never heard of Thurgood Marshall and had no real sense of implication. So you are talking about a problem that is very hard to attack. The way we are attacking it - is it in the multiple levels, first of all we are partnered with Gaston and his people and we're driving these advance placement effort and he has been terrific. The second thing we are doing, we're opening up these international schools and we have some of the most incredible schools. The school that the Asia Society sponsors is at Statin Island is in an inwardly looking country, and inwardly looking city. Statin Island is in a, I mean this is a burrow that really - it's just sort of like the nation, you know, that's surrounded by water, right. And so they think that everything that happens in Statin Island, we have got an International School there and on my birthday they are saying Happy Birthday to me in Chinese, and it was really a very powerful event. So we we're doing that and through that creating opportunities for kids. We are opening up International schools because you know, we have more kids come here, from other nations. That we need to educate and those create all this challenges. The most amazing fact which most people still won't believe that in 40 percent of my kid's families English is not the first language and is not the principal language spoken at home. So we've got to both a highly challenging integrated function to tackle, at the same time we need to be and to think intelligently about what it means to be an educated High School graduate in the United States. That's a national challenge at a minimum. It can no longer be something we simply differ to the states and second of all it's got to have an entirely different and much more robust sense of what the global challenges are. And you are home sake, yes it was the Governor of West Virginia. West Virginia's fate is going to be influenced by Asia. And all the rest of the world in ways that are unimaginable to the average kid growing up in West Virginia today. And we need national leadership on these issues. And not the reason, you need to think globally, and act globally in an education. We don't think globally we just act locally because all politics are local, right, people are running for re-election you know, in this little town. And what what are the issues in the little town? The issues in little town are we need more creations as some of our kids will have better values so that they will be able to be better citizens. And what we need is the kind of leadership that will entirely change the discussion. That will insist that education in America has been tied to meaningful national standards that will insist that a robust global education is indispensable to kids in the 21st century. And that we will understand if we don't do those things, we will pay an enormous price. I wonder I mean actually you've really put that down as if one of the biggest challenge. I wonder if all of you collectively have one or two thoughts that as business leaders, what do we need to do. How do we really get our politicians to say that in fact what is local is also global? What would that take? And what would we need to do educationally to really get to the next level. One or two things anyone one of you thoughts about Let me let me just follow up with what Joe was saying because I think he has put his finger on a number of very critical issues. And one of them is that every American company has a strong interest in doing the kinds of things that he has described that we all have an interest in strengthening the capabilities of the American education system. The problem with business is that it in many cases doesn't quiet see the link between what it's doing today and what it needs to do to make sure there is a talented productive internationally minded labor force available tomorrow. There is a certain short-termitis that that tends to take place and we try to do this adopting schools but also trying to provide support for programs like this. The key thing about, about Wall Street is that people spend an excruciating amount of time trying to figure out what the Federal Reserve is going to do tomorrow or next week or next month. First of all, whatever they do in a given month has virtually no long term impact at all. And second we have no influence at all over what they do or decide not to do. But one of the things we can do to strengthen our capability as companies over the long term is to strengthen the American school system starting right now and going on and not just adopting the schools but really getting engaged in the curriculum, having people available who have had international experience, go to the schools and help to impart that experience. Financing programs that strengthen language capabilities and financing programs that enable people to travel abroad. I just give you one little example you mentioned the small village in Africa which really resonates with me because when I was a first year college student, end of the first year. I went on something called Operation Crossroads Africa. I went to Kenya, spent a year in Kenya, sort of a summer peace corp. It changed my life for it because first of all, it was coming - growing up in Baltimore and seeing this entirely different culture made a huge impact on me though other people who lived in ways very different from the way I was I was brought up. And second because you see there is a real world out there. There is a there are lots of different cultures and once you understand that once you travel anywhere, you have a sense of the world that changes dramatically and I think that notion of of travel or exposure to foreign cultures through your school system or working, I went to a camp called Camp [0:34:28] (Polcano) where there were kids with UN students, the UN officials there and you know, to see other cultures and understand that there are other cultures who lived their own lives and trying to trying to understand them and work with them and develop a better set of relationships, expands your horizons dramatically. And I think corporations need to do this. It's an investment in this country and it's an investment in their own future wellbeing and to get corporations not just involve but really deeply involved in this thing is critically important. Because otherwise we will not have an internationally united workforce, we won't have a workforce with the skills to do the knowledge jobs that are going to require us to be required to compete with the Chinese and the Indians and others and then we will fall back on a very nationalistic, very xenophobic move because people will think well we can't compete. We don't understand the world, the worlds cheating us, all of these things you see on these irresponsible television shows. If you feel you can compete and you feel optimistic and you understand the world you see the trade and globalization and technology benefits me, benefits us, then you feel much more positive about the world. If you think these were all threats and you can't compete you don't understand the world then you react very negatively to it and I am afraid that's one of the big risks in this country right now. No it seems to me Joel that when you were talking about the New York City schools and my own experience as one of those Principle for a day program in Queens was that indeed here we have this incredible diversity but the tension between integration and celebrating diversity that actually can get you to be more globally educated is one of the tensions and and I wonder if that something if you were to kind of put a magic wand out there and say one thing that would really help us to get to the next level. I actually think Bob put his finger on it, I think unless and until America's business insists on an entirely different educational structure, and let me tell you why, I think he is right. They worry about the interest rate, they are worried about the tariffs, they are worried about the tax rate but the truth of the matter is That the quarterly profits. Yes the truth that matter is, there is not a person in his room indeed not a not a person that I know whose kids aren't going to be able to navigate the educational system and that means that people in business do not have a shared commitment to the transformation. If we had a police force like the educational system people would rise up, they wouldn't tolerate because their own safety and security will be affected. Here we are talking about secondary and tertiary impacts on people's lives and now we need the kind of leadership. So for me if I were one of the wealthy people that people knocked on my door and said, you know, they want a contribution for the campaign I would ask them right off that, what you are going to do to change the delivery of education in America today. And if they gave me all the platitudes that are out there now which is what you normally hear during the election season, if they gave me all those platitudes I will look for another candidate because we got to get serious about, and it's not just the global dimensions. I mean this book you gave out shows how, between 1970 and now the number of kids going to college, the number of kids graduating from college its astonishing and that doesn't even take into account this God awful racial and ethnic achievement gap which which we suffer in America So, to me, we need an informed citizenry that realizes the education issue goes way beyond their own children's education and what makes it hard, is global corporations understand, they will find talent globally. This is a uniquely domestic problem in the sense that I can go as - as Bob said he can find his brilliant technician in India who he he can then create through his equity investments a whole new - it doesn't matter to him whether its India or [0:38:33] ____. He is looking for a turn, and he is going to go where the opportunity is. I don't mean that, you know, a person is [0:38:40] ____. That's the way it works and what we need now in America is an entirely different conversation about education and standards. Bill Bradley and I always think this is good when you know somebody is not going to run for office again they write an honest book so Bill Bradley, he said when he grew up when he was a kid he grew up in Missouri he said, his mother used to say eat everything on your plate, remember the kids in China and India. He said today what he would say to his kids is go do your homework remember the kids in China and India. As an exchange student I must say at the age of 16 being here in the United States I was shocked to hear how much people said eat everything on your plate because remember the kids in China and India and I thought gee, I don't have that much problems, you know, an interesting thing. I am going to open up the floor you have literally five minutes but anything anyone of you would like to add to this. I will say one thing. There is no one in this room that isn't here because of a teacher and until America decides it's going to have the best trained and best type teachers in the world we are not going to be able to compete in the world. We have had to bring 40 Chinese teachers over here with the help of the Asia Society and the Chinese government. We will bring another hundred this year because we have no teachers to teach Chinese in this country. And that's something that's a real, a real sign of foresight in this country. So until we we in this country are really serious about education, the way we will show it the most is when we have the best trained and the best placed teachers. One quick thought, you know, having been in the middle of great state university. I know all of you have kids in one school or college or another. Let me tell you, these even the greatest of these institutions are incredibly fragile. They are hanging on by one little finger and this is the greatest of power for the world and the greatest power for us. And whenever I go into a corporation and I see these beautiful gleaming buildings and the facilities. I think you know wouldn't it be extraordinary. You could walk into a university or a High School and see something even half way there. There is a huge disconnect and I don't know what the remedy is, but probably more support from people like you. But I think a national conversation where business leaders, policy makers and education leaders come together to put this on the agenda way, way up. I mean, that has to be something and that's something perhaps we at the Asia Society can really play a role in trying to figure out how to do that. So one question from the audience and we are going to call it a day. It's your chance guys. You put the pressure on, you should have said two then somebody will be - If the answer is short we'll go to two.